STEPS process reengineering.

Have previously described the difference between business process reengineering (BPR) and continuous improvement process (CIP), which in other forms can be described as follows. Continuous Process Improvement Business Process Reengineering

Gradual incremental change

Radical change

Low investment

High investment

People / practices focus

People / technology focus

Improvement on existing

Scrap and rebuild

Work units driven

Although BPR Champion driven by some companies to change the CIP were deemed too slow and not fast, but it does not mean that the CIP is not used at all after using RB.

After BPR successfully implemented, CIP continued to be implemented. Step-by-step process reengineering, according to Andrews and Stalick can be done as follows, according to the structure of the above process: 

Creating the project skeleton.

Creating the vision, values ​​and goals.

Creating a new design on business operations.

Proof of concept.

Implementation plan.

Obtain approval of implementation.

Implementation of design changes.

The transition to the stage of continuous improvement.

Step 1: Create a project framework. Any reengineering project requires primarily a statement of intent (statement of purpose) that contains measurable objectives and provides coverage as well. Here included within cost and also to keep under control and not to stop in the middle of the road project. Within the framework of this project, which should be included among others are:

Broad limits of organizational boundaries.

Potential advantages.

Political, environmental and cultural related.

The cause for of the planned reengineering.

Risks that may be encountered.

Determinants of the success of reengineering.

Limitations, assumptions and constraints faced. In addition, before going any further, it should be ensured also on:

Organizational readiness.

Commitment.

Readiness team will handle.

The methodology and techniques to be used. In addition, the reengineering project can only be passed if the following conditions are fully realized:

Reengineering is a radical change.

The project team can be expanded and may involve the affected change.

Ensured top management commitment is obtained.

Resources (budget, time, human resources) needed certainly been provided. This phase should produce a statement of the framework (framework statement), which is almost the same as the statement of purpose, which is a statement that includes:

Business history in the context of reengineering.

Problems and causes in the context of the environment.

Goal / objective that spur business reengineering.

Limit, the scope and the items overlap.

The things that supports the success of reengineering.

Limitations, assumptions and constraints that face.

Recommendations for participation and team members. In addition, several key activities that need to be done in this step, among others are:

Accumulating research team.

Making the conceptual framework project.

Make the analysis of the situation now.

Make a statement framework.

Recommend hold or not hold.

Make a contract with the executive sponsor.

Step 2: Creating the vision, values ​​and goals. After reengineering project was decided, it was time to create a vision of the future, which is a description of how reengineering it happen. Vision is a picture or what inspired future design changes planned process. Without vision, the people will lose the direction reengineering will be addressed and likely to fail. Values ​​and goals is a supporter of the creation of the vision meant. All of this will be included in the Vision, Value and Goals Statement that briefly lists how the business will be run after the completion reengineering. Although the vision is something aspired to, but must remain realistic and reachable. At this stage the inaugural meeting was held (kickoff meeting), a very important meeting, talking about the important things that are beginning as follows:

Introduce and explain the reengineering project.

Mengusahaan understanding and support.

Demonstrated commitment to top management for the project.

Explaining the formation of teams is required.

Educate them about the associated meaning, purpose, goal directed, the process will be taken, the scope of the project and so on.

Answer any questions, overcome objections or hesitations.

Create an environment that is ready to make decisions that support. The inaugural meeting diikui with several other meetings that will result in vision, values ​​and goals that have been mentioned above. In this second step, to do a few key activities, as follows:

Plan a kickoff meeting.

Planning for other meetings.

Implement kickoff meeting.

Conducting meetings to talk about the vision, values ​​and goals.

Creating the vision, values ​​and goals.

Analyze and validate vision, values ​​and goals are.

Step 3: Create a new design on business operations reengineering It is the most important step, which is when the current process highlighted thorough and sharp to be changed at all like what it should be, what is aspired. Remember that reengineering is a total and radical change especially regarding the process. There are 7 principles regarding design changes, which need to be considered are:

Make the organization about the intended results.

Keep direct contact with customers.

Use the optimal technological advances.

Control through policy, practice and feedback.

Try to work the independent and simultaneous.

Leave decision-making to the field workers.

Create an effective feedback channels. The result of this step is a blueprint (blueprint) reengineering involving:

Physical components / techniques, namely:

Process model.

Model information.

Organizational model.

Model technology.

Infrastructure components, namely:

Management strategy.

Measurement system.

Program awards.

Component values ​​are:

Corporate culture.

The use of power.

System of self-confidence. Some activities related to the need to include are:

Planning blueprint discussion meeting.

Held a discussion meeting blueprint.

Documenting blueprint.

Analyze and validate blueprint.

Step 4: Proof of concept. What is the title above? What is meant by 'proof of concept' is sharpened expected profit as well as to test whether the design change process goes as expected. Some questions you can ask testers are for example:

Is reengineering steps to meet production targets set?

Are there any hidden problems to be solved?

Is the new design reduces costs significantly?

Is the new design brings significant additional revenue?

Is the new process to address all situations including the error process transactions effectively and efficiently?

This step can be done by for example doing a pilot test prior to full implementation. Several advantages can be gained from doing this test pilot, for example:

Retrieved actual evidence on the benefits, not the mere estimates.

Gained experience giving lessons on how to seek changes in an orderly and avoid mistakes during implementation.

Testing in the training, use of materials, organize and structure work and so on.

Sharpening processes, policies and business practices based on real usage.

Experience in cultural change, so it can be anticipated that resistance may arise if it is done in full implementation.

Assessment and evaluation are more details that have not been fully covered in the blueprint. Again, this step is to answer the question of whether to step reengineering process goes according to the path or direction of hope? If the answer is 'yes', then the process can continue with the next step. If the answer is 'no' it is necessary to re-design back, and so on. Some of the key activities that need to be done in this step, is as follows:

Establishing proof of concept requirements.

Choosing a proof of concept approach.

Develop requirements and concept plan needs.

Step 5: Plan implementation. Although it is said that the most important creation Blueprint, but making relatively easy and much easier than the implementation. Without the right strategy and a rigorous, implementation may not be successfully implemented. No one in the company who would be teased and harassed-totally revamped the way it works, would be changed radically, going the extra burden of bad unless convinced that the company's survival depends on it. The purpose of this fifth step is:

Develop implementation strategies change.

Ensuring minimal disruption in operations.

Make a realistic plan, including the provision of funds.

Make a detailed plan of the task changes, the results to be achieved, the role, responsibility, schedule and cost. Notable results were achieved: Implementation Plan, which includes several programs:

Maintenance Project Team.

Membership team and executive sponsorship.

Team management, accountability, and communication operations.

Decision making and problem solving processes.

Coordination of projects and external projects.

Monitor implementation and progress reports.

Communication Program.

Purpose: information, sells, supports.

Target audience: customers, employees, managers, leaders.

The contents of the communication.

Choice of means and media.

Material, kits and equipment used.

Briefings, meetings and so on.

Culture Change Management Programme.

Management expected.

Policies, business practices and working methods. o The organizational structure.

Positions and employees' needs.

Expected performance.

Performance measurement system.

Plan rewards and incentives.

Management support during the transition.

Education and Training Program.

Manual or references to policies, practices, business procedures.

The need for skills and knowledge.

Target audience: customers, employees, managers, leaders.

Choice of media and formats, such as training, classroom instruction, on the job training and so on.

Pengkokohan after training (posttraining reinforcement).

Technology Development Program.

Software, hardware, and communications purposes.

The ability of existing companies.

Offerings available in the market.

Standards, protocols and platforms.

Logical design.

Purchases from outside or developed.

The use of a consultant or not.

Concept Testing Program.

Some or all of the programs mentioned above need to be tested or not.

In this case use a consultant or not. Some of the key activities required in this step is to include:

Planning meetings for planning implementation.

Conduct meetings to plan implementation.

Documenting the Implementation Plan.

Analyze and Plan of Implementation adopted.

Step 6: Obtain approval of the implementation of the Agreement in question here is to get the approval of funding and other resources needed to run the blueprint that has been made. If this is not done properly, can berlarutlarut up longer and will make everyone frustrated. The expected outcome of this step is of course the demand of funds and approval of the request. This funding request includes the request:

Human resources for implementation.

Materials and equipment required.

The budget for implementation including hiring consultants, training and so on. Not uncommon to fight for these funds, it is necessary explanation in the form of a presentation once again the reengineering project. This presentation describes briefly but once again complete the preparation and development that has been achieved include approximately:

Background.

Vision, values ​​and goals.

Blueprint.

Expected benefits.

Implementation plan.

Funding is needed.

The presentation must be done in a straightforward, no-fetched, do not hide the risks, not to exaggerate the success, do not forget to give facts and figures (facts and figures). Presenter should be able to give a convincing explanation of the fundamental questions that may arise, such as:

Why companies to plan a strategy reengineering?

What are trying to do?

Why the radical change necessary?

How can companies get there?

Why not just do a quick fix on the existing course?

What are the risks?

What are the advantages for the company and for the leadership?

What will happen if no action is taken reengineering?

When the signs of success are expected to appear and in what form?

What, specifically, is expected to be approved?

It is anticipated several possibilities resulting from step 6, such as:

Fully approved and requested immediate full implementation.

Approved to be implemented with the funds needed, but not too fast.

Approved to be carried out with the necessary funds, but not now, but later.

Approved to be implemented, but here and there its scope needs to be revamped Some key activities required in this step is to include:

Develop strategies approval.

Request for approval.

Giving a presentation is required.

Step 7: Implementation of design changes. If the team has reached this stage, it is necessary for successfully celebrated mencipkan and 'sell' the idea of ​​a radical change in the process, total and fundamental. The main goal in this step is to change the atmosphere of the original into the atmosphere and spirit of reengineering. Changes in this step should already look real and can be measured. These changes should lead to a reengineering goal. Therefore, the expected result is improved performance can be measured, both qualitatively and quantitatively, which include:

The frequency and volume of sales transactions.

The number of questions, responses and customer demands.

The number of errors, discrepancies, changes and improvements.

The time required for the process.

The number of employees is used to produce the results of the process.

Customer satisfaction for the performance of services and products purchased.

Follow-up is essential in the implementation of these measures. Make people want to make changes require hard determination and the ability to eliminate barriers faced. Some tips and techniques that can be done in a follow-up step, is to hold talks, interviews and discussions with employees, especially those directly involved on matters such as:

Express their needs so that work can be carried out.

Make sure they attend meetings or meetings whenever they are invited.

Check to make sure that steps have been taken in accordance with the promise.

Uncover problems.

Eliminate barriers that hinder the implementation of the work.

Provide a source of energy or the funds necessary to complete the work.

Make sure that the promised quality of being kept. In this connection, the key activities that need to be done is to include:

Hold meetings periodically and consistently.

Celebrating success.

Implement critical reflection.

Step 8: Transition to Continuous Improvement phase. When the step has reached full implementation reengineering program, we do not need a special effort from the team, because the process will take care of itself naturally and natural. This step is a kind of closure reengineering team duty towards the normal process that will continue to make improvements through continuous improvement process approach. The big bang is complete, the person said. The results obtained in this step is the stage or performance resulting from continuous improvement. Key activities undertaken is to conduct continuous improvement, critical reflection and performance measurement. Activities include:

Measuring performance directly and continuously.

Perform analysis and feedback of the results of these measurements.

Make corrections or repairs and testing.

Reward success.

Transforming the process of learning to other parts.

The boundary between reengineering and continuous improvement are sometimes unclear and unpredictable. Upon completion reengineering, continuous process improvement continues. Is reengineering will be needed again? The answer is maybe yes maybe no. Longer needed when such firms face survival threat again, merged with another company and so on.
 

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